חיפוש מאמרים

Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling
Grant, J. E., Odlaug, B. L., & Schreiber, L. R. British journal of clinical pharmacology 77.2 (2014): 375-381.
Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleteriousRead More...

Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behaviour. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. A systematic review of the 18 double‐blind, placebo‐controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean dose of medication administered was documented in an effort to determine a preferred medication choice in this population. A variety of medication classes have been examined in the treatment of PG with varying results. Antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizers have demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behaviour. Given that several studies have demonstrated their efficacy in treating the symptoms associated with PG, opioid antagonists should be considered the first line treatment for PG at this time. Most published studies, however, have employed relatively small sample sizes, are of limited duration and involve possibly non‐representative clinical groups (e.g. those without co‐occurring psychiatric disorders). Response measures have varied across studies. Heterogeneity of PG treatment samples may also complicate identification of effective treatments. Identification of factors related to treatment response will help inform future studies and advance treatment strategies for PG.

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Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology
Jauregui, P., Estévez, A., & Urbiola, I. Journal of Behavioral Addictions 5.2 (2016): 251-260.
Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. DifficultiesRead More...

Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling.

Methods

The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student’s t, Pearson’s r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board.

 

Results

Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses.

 

Discussion and conclusions

These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.

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Problem gambling worldwide: An update and systematic review of empirical research (2000–2015)
Calado, F., & Griffiths, M. D. Journal of behavioral addictions 5.4 (2016): 592-613.
Background and aims Problem gambling has been identified as an emergent public health issue, and there is a need toRead More...

Problem gambling has been identified as an emergent public health issue, and there is a need to identify gambling trends and to regularly update worldwide gambling prevalence rates. This paper aims to review recent research on adult gambling and problem gambling (since 2000) and then, in the context of a growing liberalization of the gambling market in the European Union, intends to provide a more detailed analysis of adult gambling behavior across European countries.

Methods

Results

Following this search and utilizing exclusion criteria, 69 studies on adult gambling prevalence were identified. These studies demonstrated that there are wide variations in past-year problem gambling rates across different countries in the world (0.12–5.8%) and in Europe (0.12–3.4%). However, it is difficult to directly compare studies due to different methodological procedures, instruments, cut-offs, and time frames. Despite the variability among instruments, some consistent results with regard to demographics were found.

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Prevalence, Assessment, and Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review
Petry, N. M., & Armentano, C. Psychiatric services 50.8 (1999): 1021-1027.
OBJECTIVE:  Although pathological gambling is an increasing problem, many mental health providers are unfamiliar with its diagnosis and treatment. ToRead More...

OBJECTIVE:

 Although pathological gambling is an increasing problem, many mental health providers are unfamiliar with its diagnosis and treatment. To improve recognition and treatment of pathological gambling, the authors reviewed the literature on its prevalence, assessment, and treatment.

METHODS:

Entries in PsycLIT and MEDLINE were examined for the years 1984 to 1998.

Results and discussion:

The prevalence of pathological gambling seems to be increasing with the spread of legalized gambling; casinos are now operating in 27 states. Point and lifetime prevalence rates of pathological gambling are reported to be as high as 1.4 percent and 5.1 percent, respectively. The most commonly used assessment instrument is the DSM-based, 20-item South Oaks Gambling Screen. There is no standard treatment for pathological gambling. Gamblers Anonymous (GA) is the most popular intervention, and about 1,000 chapters exist in the U.S. Studies suggest that only 8 percent of GA attendees achieve a year of abstinence. Combining professional therapy and GA participation may improve retention and abstinence. Marital and family treatments, including participation in Gam-Anon, the spousal component of GA, have not been sufficiently evaluated. The few studies of cognitive-behavioral treatments suggest that this approach, which may include cognitive restructuring, problem solving, social skills training, and relapse prevention, is promising. Carbamazepine, naltrexone, clomipramine, fluvoxamine, and lithium have been used with some effect. Therapists' manuals and self-help manuals are available. Although research evaluating their efficacy is necessary, manuals can provide a start for therapists who encounter patients with gambling problems. Brief motivational interviewing may be a useful strategy for decreasing gambling among heavy gamblers who are ambivalent about entering treatment or who do not desire abstinence.

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Genetic and environmental influences on disordered gambling in men and women
Slutske, W. S., Zhu, G., Meier, M. H., & Martin, N. G. Archives of general psychiatry 67.6 (2010): 624-630.
Context  Women now represent nearly half of all individuals in treatment for pathological gambling (PG), but relatively little is knownRead More...

Context

 Women now represent nearly half of all individuals in treatment for pathological gambling (PG), but relatively little is known about the causes of PG among women or potential sex differences in the causes of PG.

Objectives

 To (1) investigate the role of genetic and environmental risk factors in the development of disordered gambling (DG) among women and (2) determine the extent to which the genetic and environmental risk of DG among women differs quantitatively or qualitatively from the risk of DG among men. (Disordered gambling refers to the full continuum of gambling-related problems that includes PG disorder.)

Design

Twin study.

Setting

The national community-based Australian Twin Registry.

Participants

Four thousand seven hundred sixty-four individuals from 2889 twin pairs; twins were aged 32 to 43 years and 57% were women.

Main Outcome Measure

 Disordered gambling was defined based on lifetime DSM-IV PG symptom counts.

Results

 The estimate of the proportion of variation in liability for DG due to genetic influences was 49.2% (95% confidence interval, 26.7-60.9). There was no evidence for shared environmental influences contributing to variation in DG liability. There was no evidence for quantitative or qualitative sex differences in the causes of variation in DG liability.

Conclusions

This study establishes for the first time that genes are as important in the etiology of DG in women as they are in men and that the susceptibility genes contributing to variation in liability for DG are likely to overlap considerably in men and women.

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A direct, controlled, blind family study of DSM-IV pathological gambling
Black, D. W., Coryell, W. H., Crowe, R. R., McCormick, B., Shaw, M. C., & Allen, J. The Journal of clinical psychiatry 75.3 (2014): 215.
Objective Pathological gambling is a major public health problem. We sought to examine the familiality of pathological gambling and determineRead More...

Objective

Pathological gambling is a major public health problem. We sought to examine the familiality of pathological gambling and determine patterns of familial aggregation of disorders.

Method

We assessed probands with DSM-IV pathological gambling, controls, and their first-degree relatives. Detailed family history information was collected on relatives who were deceased or unavailable.

Results

Ninety-five pathological gambling probands, 91 controls, and their 1,075 first-degree relatives over age 18 (537 relatives of pathological gambling probands, 538 relatives of controls) were evaluated between February 2005 and June 2010. Relatives were assessed blind to proband status. Best estimate diagnoses were assigned. Rates of lifetime pathological gambling (definite/probable) was significantly greater among the first-degree relatives of probands with pathological gambling than among comparison relatives (11% vs 1%, OR = 8.19, P < .001). The prevalence of pathological gambling and subclinical pathological gambling combined was 16% and 3% in case and control relatives, respectively (OR = 6.57, P < .001). Pathological gambling relatives had higher rates of major depression (OR = 1.49, P < .05), bipolar disorder (OR = 3.82, P < .05), any mood disorder (OR = 1.59, P < .05), social anxiety disorder (OR = 4.76, P < .01), any substance use disorder (OR = 1.47, P < .05), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.59, P < .05), and antisocial personality disorder (OR = 3.72, P < .001). Antisocial personality disorder (OR = 3.12, P < .01), social anxiety disorder (OR = 4.15, P < .01), and posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.85, P < .05) were more frequent in case relatives independent of the presence of pathological gambling. Age at onset of pathological gambling in case probands (< 40 years/≥ 40 years) was not related to familiality in their first-degree relatives (OR = 1.03, P = .927).

Conclusions

Pathological gambling is familial. Mood and substance use disorders may emerge as a consequence of the pathological gambling or as a more complex syndrome. In contrast, antisocial personality disorder, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder may share a common familial etiology with pathological gambling. The phenotype may extend beyond pathological gambling to include subclinical forms of the disorder.

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The neurobiology of pathological gambling and drug addiction: an overview and new findings
Potenza, M. N. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363.1507 (2008): 3181-3189.
Gambling is a prevalent recreational behaviour. Approximately 5% of adults have been estimated to experience problems with gambling. The mostRead More...

Gambling is a prevalent recreational behaviour. Approximately 5% of adults have been estimated to experience problems with gambling. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling (PG), is recognized as a mental health condition. Two alternate non-mutually exclusive conceptualizations of PG have considered it as an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder and a ‘behavioural’ addiction. The most appropriate conceptualization of PG has important theoretical and practical implications. Data suggest a closer relationship between PG and substance use disorders than exists between PG and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This paper will review data on the neurobiology of PG, consider its conceptualization as a behavioural addiction, discuss impulsivity as an underlying construct, and present new brain imaging findings investigating the neural correlates of craving states in PG as compared to those in cocaine dependence. Implications for prevention and treatment strategies will be discussed.

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Association between exposure to childhood and lifetime traumatic events and lifetime pathological gambling in a twin cohort
Scherrer, J. F., Xian, H., Kapp, J. M. K., Waterman, B., Shah, K. R., Volberg, R., & Eisen, S. A. The Journal of nervous and mental disease 195.1 (2007): 72-78.
The present study seeks to estimate the strength of the association between exposure to lifetime traumatic eventsand gambling problems while accountingRead More...

The present study seeks to estimate the strength of the association between exposure to lifetime traumatic eventsand gambling problems while accounting for the potential contribution of psychiatric disorders, genetic factors, and family environmental influences. In 2002, structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with 1675 male twins to obtain data on exposure to traumatic events and pathological gambling. Multinomial regression tested for associations between each traumatic event and three levels of problem gambling (1–2 symptoms, at risk; 3–4 symptoms, problem gambling, and 5 or more symptoms, pathological gambling). Analyses of data from twin pairs discordant for gambling behavior controlled for genetic and family environmental factors. After adjustment for covariates, child abuse (relative risk [RR] = 2.31), child neglect (RR = 5.53), witnessing someone badly hurt or killed (RR = 2.83), and physical attack (RR = 3.39) were associated with pathological gambling. Genetic and family environmental factors significantly contributed to the association between exposure to traumatic events and one or more symptoms of problem gambling. Exposure to childhood and lifetime traumatic events are significantly associated with problem and pathological gambling. These associations are partially accounted for by psychiatric covariates and genetic and family environmental factors.

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The Lie/Bet Questionnaire for Screening Pathological Gamblers
Johnson, E. E., Hamer, R., Nora, R. M., Tan, B., Eisenstein, N., & Engelhart, C. Psychological reports 80.1 (1997): 83-88.
A 2-item questionnaire was derived from 10 DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Subjects were 362 men, 191 classified as pathologicalRead More...

A 2-item questionnaire was derived from 10 DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Subjects were 362 men, 191 classified as pathological gamblers and 171 as nonproblem-gambling controls. The two items were significant in sensitivity and negative predictive value and significant in specificity and positive predictive value.

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A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the opiate antagonist naltrexone in the treatment of pathological gambling urges
Grant, J. E., Kim, S. W., & Odlaug, B. L. Biological psychiatry 65.7 (2009): 600-606.
Kleptomania is a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent stealing and for which there exists no empirically validated treatments. This study examined theRead More...

Kleptomania is a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent stealing and for which there exists no empirically validated treatments. This study examined the efficacy and tolerability of the opioid antagonist naltrexone in adults with kleptomania who have urges to steal.

Methods

An 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral naltrexone for kleptomania. Twenty-five individuals with DSM-IV kleptomania were randomized to naltrexone (dosing ranging from 50 mg/day to 150 mg/day) or placebo. Twenty-three subjects (92%) completed the study. Subjects were assessed every 2 weeks with the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Kleptomania (K-YBOCS), the urge and behavior subscales of the K-YBOCS, the Kleptomania Symptom Assessment Scale (K-SAS), the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI), and measures of depression, anxiety, and psychosocial functioning.

Results

Subjects assigned to naltrexone had significantly greater reductions in K-YBOCS total scores (p = .001), stealing urges (p = .032), and stealing behavior (p < .001) compared with subjects on placebo. Subjects assigned to naltrexone also had greater improvement in overall kleptomania severity (reflected in the CGI scores) (p < .001). The mean effective dose of naltrexone was 116.7 (±44.4) mg/day.

Conclusions

Naltrexone demonstrated statistically significant reductions in stealing urges and behavior in kleptomania. Naltrexone was well tolerated.

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Psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling – Cochrane Systematic Review
Cowlishaw, S., Merkouris, S., Dowling, N., Anderson, C., Jackson, A., & Thomas, S. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 11 (2012).
Background Various psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling have been evaluated in randomised trials. A synthesis of best‐quality evidenceRead More...

Background

Various psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling have been evaluated in randomised trials. A synthesis of best‐quality evidence is required.

Objectives

The objective was to synthesise evidence from randomised trials of psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling (cognitive‐behaviour therapy (CBT), motivational interviewing therapy, integrative therapy, other psychological therapy), in order to indicate the efficacy of therapies and durability of therapy effects, relative to control conditions.

Search methods

We conducted a search of the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR), which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) (all years), EMBASE (1974 ‐), MEDLINE (1950 ‐) and PsycINFO (1967 ‐). We also carried out complementary searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS and CENTRAL for studies published between January 1980 and October 2011. We examined the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov and also conducted manual searches of selected journals and reference lists of included studies.

Selection criteria

Included studies were clinical trials using random allocation to groups, considering pathological or problem gamblers, and evaluating a psychological therapy for pathological or problem gambling. Control conditions included 'no treatment' controls, referral to Gamblers Anonymous and non‐specific treatment component controls.

Data collection and analysis

We systematically extracted data on the characteristics and results of studies. Primary outcomes were measures of gambling symptom severity, financial loss from gambling and frequency of gambling. Secondary outcomes were occurrence of pathological gambling diagnoses and depression and anxiety symptoms. Treatment effects were defined by comparisons between therapy and control conditions at post‐treatment assessments (conducted from 0 to 3 months following completion of treatment) and follow‐up assessments (conducted from 9 to 12 months following completion of treatment), respectively, using the standardised mean difference (SMD) or risk ratio (RR). We synthesised results through random‐effects meta‐analysis.

Main results

Fourteen studies (n = 1245) met the inclusion criteria. Eleven studies compared CBT with control and comparisons at 0 to 3 months post‐treatment showed beneficial effects of therapy that ranged from medium (when defined by financial loss from gambling: SMD ‐0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) ‐0.71 to ‐0.33, n = 505) to very large (for gambling symptom severity: SMD ‐1.82; 95% CI ‐2.61 to ‐1.02, n = 402). Only one study (n = 147) compared groups at 9 to 12 months follow‐up and produced smaller effects that were not significant. Four studies of motivational interviewing therapy were identified and mainly considered samples demonstrating less severe gambling (relative to studies of pathological gamblers). Data suggested reduced financial loss from gambling following motivational interviewing therapy at 0 to 3 months post‐treatment (SMD ‐0.41; 95% CI ‐0.75 to ‐0.07, n = 244), although comparisons on other outcomes were not significant. The effect approached zero when defined by gambling symptom severity (SMD ‐0.03; 95% CI ‐0.55 to 0.50, n = 163). Studies compared groups at 9 to 12 months follow‐up and found a significant effect of motivational interviewing therapy in terms of frequency of gambling (SMD ‐0.53; 95% CI ‐1.04 to ‐0.02, n = 62), with comparisons on other outcomes that were not significant. Two studies of integrative therapies also considered samples demonstrating overall low gambling severity, and found no significant effects of therapy at 0 to 3 months post‐treatment. Comparisons at 9 to 12 months follow‐up suggested a medium effect from therapy in terms of gambling symptom severity, with no significant differences for other outcomes. One study (n = 18) considered another psychological therapy (i.e.Twelve‐Step Facilitated Group Therapy) and suggested beneficial effects in terms of most outcomes at 0 to 3 months post‐treatment. The evidence supporting these various classes of therapy ranged from very low to low quality.

Authors' conclusions

This review supports the efficacy of CBT in reducing gambling behaviour and other symptoms of pathological and problem gambling immediately following therapy. However, the durability of therapeutic gain is unknown. There is preliminary evidence for some benefits from motivational interviewing therapy in terms of reduced gambling behaviour, although not necessarily other symptoms of pathological and problem gambling. However, the findings are based on few studies and additional research is needed to inform conclusions. There is also evidence suggestive of some possible benefit from integrative therapies, and other psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling. However, there are too few studies and evidence is insufficient to evaluate these therapies. The majority of studies in this review varied in risk of bias, and much of the evidence comes from studies with multiple limitations. The current data may thus reflect overestimates of treatment efficacy.a

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Suicidality among gambling helpline callers: A consideration of the role of financial stress and conflict
Carr, M. M., Ellis, J. D., & Ledgerwood, D. M. The American journal on addictions 27.6 (2018): 531-537.
Background and Objectives High rates of suicidal ideation and attempts secondary to gambling are well established among those with gamblingRead More...

Background and Objectives

High rates of suicidal ideation and attempts secondary to gambling are well established among those with gambling disorders. The present study explores potential risk factors for suicidal ideation and/attempt among a sample of help‐line callers.

Methods

Participants (N = 202) completed measures assessing demographics; gambling behavior; and financial, family/social, employment, substance use, and legal difficulties related to gambling. Bivariate analyses, logistic regression, and mediation analyses were used to explore relationship between predictors and risk of suicidal ideation and attempt.

Results

Female gender, gambling severity (including engagement in illegal behaviors), a history of mental health problems, financial problems, and conflict related to gambling were associated with current suicidality in this sample. Mediation analyses revealed that financial problems were associated with increased familial conflict, which was in turn associated with increased suicidality.

Conclusions

Family and social conflict may be one important way in which financial problems confer risk for suicidality among problem gamblers. These results align with findings from the substance use disorder (SUD) literature and highlight one potential factor that may merit further assessment and/or intervention.

Scientific Significance

Researchers and clinicians may want to consider the overall level of conflict a patient is experiencing when assessing suicide risk among individuals with gambling problems. Professionals may also want to consider the suitability of interventions to address conflict within the context of gambling treatment.

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Comorbidity of DSM-IV pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
Petry, N. M., Stinson, F. S., & Grant, B. F. The Journal of clinical psychiatry 66.5 (2005): 564-574.
OBJECTIVE: To present nationally representative data on lifetime prevalence and comorbidity of pathological gambling with other psychiatric disorders and toRead More...

OBJECTIVE:

To present nationally representative data on lifetime prevalence and comorbidity of pathological gambling with other psychiatric disorders and to evaluate sex differences in the strength of the comorbid associations.

METHOD:

Data were derived from a large national sample of the United States. Some 43,093 household and group quarters residents age 18 years and older participated in the 2001-2002 survey. Prevalence and associations of lifetime pathological gambling and other lifetime psychiatric disorders are presented. The diagnostic interview was the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. Fifteen symptom items operationalized the 10 pathological gambling criteria.

RESULTS:

The lifetime prevalence rate of pathological gambling was 0.42%. Almost three quarters (73.2%) of pathological gamblers had an alcohol use disorder, 38.1% had a drug use disorder, 60.4% had nicotine dependence, 49.6% had a mood disorder, 41.3% had an anxiety disorder, and 60.8% had a personality disorder. A large majority of the associations between pathological gambling and substance use, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders were overwhelmingly positive and significant (p < .05), even after controlling for sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Male sex, black race, divorced/separated/widowed marital status, middle age, and living in the West and Midwest were associated with increased risk for pathological gambling. Further, associations between alcohol dependence, any drug use disorder, drug abuse, nicotine dependence, major depressive episode, and generalized anxiety disorder and pathological gambling were stronger among women than men (p > .05).

CONCLUSION:

Pathological gambling is highly comorbid with substance use, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders, suggesting that treatment for one condition should involve assessment and possible concomitant treatment for comorbid conditions.

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Measuring cognitive distortions in pathological gambling: Review and meta-analyses
Goodie, Adam S.; Fortune, Erica E. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 27.3 (2013): 730.
There is broad agreement that cognitive distortions are an integral component of the development, maintenance, and treatment of pathological gambling.Read More...

There is broad agreement that cognitive distortions are an integral component of the development, maintenance, and treatment of pathological gambling. There is no authoritative catalog of the distortions that are observed more frequently in pathological gamblers than in others, but several instruments have been successfully developed that measure various distortions of interest, which are reviewed. All of the prominent instruments include measures of the illusion of control (perceiving more personal control over events than is warranted), and almost all include measures of gambler’s fallacy (the belief that after a string of one event, such as a coin landing heads, an alternative event, such as the coin landing tails, becomes more likely). Beyond these two errors, there is scant consensus on relevant errors, and a wide variety has been studied. Meta-analyses were conducted on differences between PGs and non-PGs in scores on six published instruments that were developed to measure distortions in gamblers. All instruments reveal large effects using Hedge’s g statistic, suggesting that the impact of distortions on PG is robust. Several subscales, assigned diverse names by scale authors, can be viewed as reflecting common distortions. Those judged to assess gambler’s fallacy show evidence of more robust effects sizes than those that assess illusion of control. It is recommended that future research focus more specifically on the impact of particular distortions on gambling disorders.

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Pathological Gambling
Potenza, M. N., Kosten, T. R., & Rounsaville, B. J. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 286.i2 (2001): 141.
Legalized gambling grossed $50 billion in 1998, more than the motion picture industry, theme park, and music industries combined. InRead More...

Legalized gambling grossed $50 billion in 1998, more than the motion picture industry, theme park, and music industries combined. In 1998, 86 percent of the general adult population was estimated to have gambled at some point in their lives, up from 68 percent in 1975. An increased prevalence of gambling problems has accompanied the recent rapid expansion of legalized gambling. Since significant adverse consequences often accompany gambling problems, there is a growing need to understand, identify, and develop effective treatment of individuals with gambling problems. Gambling is defined as placing something of value at risk with the hope of gaining something of greater value. This article reviews the differences between gambling, problem gambling and pathological gambling; the prevalence of problem and pathological gambling; neurobiological theories associated with pathological gambling; the adverse consequences of pathological gambling; the identification of problem and pathological gambling; and the self-help and treatment of problem and pathological gamblers.

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