חיפוש מאמרים

Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: Trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction
Wang, C. W., Ho, R. T., Chan, C. L., & Tse, S. Addictive behaviors 42 (2015): 32-35.
This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different onlineRead More...

This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale — Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β = 0.15, p < 0.001) and less conscientiousness (β = 0.12, p < 0.001) displayed significant associations with internet addiction in general; less conscientiousness (β = 0.09, p < 0.01) and low openness (β = 0.06, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with gaming addiction; and neuroticism (β = 0.15, p < 0.001) and extraversion (β = 0.10, p < 0.01) were significantly associated with social networking addiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs.

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The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey
Andreassen, C. S., Pallesen, S., & Griffiths, M. D. Addictive behaviors 64 (2017): 287-293.
Social media has become an increasingly popular leisure activity over the last decade. Although most people's social media use isRead More...

Social media has become an increasingly popular leisure activity over the last decade. Although most people's social media use is non-problematic, a small number of users appear to engage in social media excessively and/or compulsively. The main objective of this study was to examine the associations between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem. A cross-sectional convenient sample of 23,532 Norwegians (Mage = 35.8 years; range = 16–88 years) completed an open web-based survey including the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results demonstrated that lower age, being a woman, not being in a relationship, being a student, lower education, lower income, lower self-esteem, and narcissism were associated with higher scores on the BSMAS, explaining a total of 17.5% of the variance. Although most effect sizes were relatively modest, the findings supported the notion of addictive social media use reflecting a need to feed the ego (i.e., narcissistic personality traits) and an attempt to inhibit a negative self-evaluation (i.e., self-esteem). The results were also consistent with demographic predictions and associations taken from central theories concerning “addiction”, indicating that women may tend to develop more addictive use of activities involving social interaction than men. However, the cross-sectional study design makes inferences about directionality impossible.

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Prevalence of internet addiction and its association with stressful life events and psychological symptoms among adolescent internet users
Tang, J., Yu, Y., Du, Y., Ma, Y., Zhang, D., & Wang, J. Addictive Behaviors 39.3 (2014): 744-747.
Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studiesRead More...

Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N = 755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style.

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An overview of problematic Internet use
Spada, M. M. Addictive behaviors 39.1 (2014): 3-6.
Problematic Internet use (PIU), which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to controlRead More...

Problematic Internet use (PIU), which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to control one's use of the Internet which leads to negative consequences in daily life. The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of the gradually evolving body of literature on PIU. This shows that the definitions and diagnostic criteria that have been proposed, and the assessment tools that have been developed, stress similarities between PIU, addictive behaviours and impulse-control disorders. Disagreements regarding diagnostic criteria and the lack of large epidemiological studies have resulted in difficulties in establishing the prevalence of PIU in the general population. Studies suggest high comorbidity rates between PIU and numerous psychiatric disorders highlighting the importance of focusing on comorbidity in treatment. There is growing evidence that genetic, personality and individual differences in automatic and controlled aspects of self-regulation may promote the development of PIU. Pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments specific to PIU have received limited testing in large, rigorous studies however preliminary evidence suggests that both psychotropic medications (Escitalopram, Naltrexone and Methylphenidate) and cognitive behaviour therapy may have some utility in the treatment of PIU. More research is needed on areas which remain unclear and contribute to the prognosis of PIU, in particular the temporal relationships between psychiatric disorder and PIU, mechanisms of comorbidity and the more subtle psychological changes that occur through Internet use.

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Problematic computer game use among adolescents, younger and older adults
Festl, R., Scharkow, M., & Quandt, T. Addiction 108.3 (2013): 592-599.
Aims Playing digital games has been associated with forms of addictive behavior. Past research on the subject has often beenRead More...

Aims

Playing digital games has been associated with forms of addictive behavior. Past research on the subject has often been criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds, due mainly to measurement or sampling issues. The present study aims to overcome these two limitations, and presents data from a representative study in Germany using an already established instrument for measuring problematic game use.

Design

Large‐scale, representative study using a computer‐assisted telephone survey.

Setting

Germany.

Participants

A total of 580 adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age, 1866 younger adults between 19–39 years and 1936 older adults aged 40 years and older (overall n = 4382).

Measurements

Problematic game use was measured with the Gaming Addiction Short Scale (GAS), which covers seven criteria including salience, withdrawal and conflicts. Additionally, differential aspects of personality, as well as gaming behaviour, were measured.

Findings

Only seven respondents [0.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1, 0.3] met all criteria of the GAS Scale. In contrast, 3.7% (95% CI: 3.1, 4.3) of the respondents can be considered problematic users, meeting at least half these conditions. The percentage of problematic gamers among adolescents is above average (7.6%, 95% CI: 5.6, 10.1). High GAS scores are associated with aggression, low sociability and self‐efficacy and lower satisfaction with life. Additionally, these scores correspond with intensive use and preferences for certain gaming genres across all age groups.

Conclusions

Following Gaming Addiction Short Scale criteria, gaming addiction is currently not a widespread phenomenon among adolescents and adults in Germany. Gaming Addiction Short Scale scores are associated with intensive use, as well as certain problematic aspects of individuals' personalities and social lives.

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An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM‐5 approach
Petry, N. M., Rehbein, F., Gentile, D. A., Lemmens, J. S., Rumpf, H. J., Mößle, T., & Auriacombe, M. Addiction 109.9 (2014): 1399-1406.
Aims For the first time, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM‐5) introduces non‐substance addictions as psychiatric diagnoses. The aimsRead More...

Aims

For the first time, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM‐5) introduces non‐substance addictions as psychiatric diagnoses. The aims of this paper are to (i) present the main controversies surrounding the decision to include internet gaming disorder, but not internet addiction more globally, as a non‐substance addiction in the research appendix of the DSM‐5, and (ii) discuss the meaning behind the DSM‐5 criteria for internet gaming disorder. The paper also proposes a common method for assessing internet gaming disorder. Although the need for common diagnostic criteria is not debated, the existence of multiple instruments reflect the divergence of opinions in the field regarding how best to diagnose this condition.

Methods

We convened international experts from European, North and South American, Asian and Australasian countries to discuss and achieve consensus about assessing internet gaming disorder as defined within DSM‐5.

Results

We describe the intended meaning behind each of the nine DSM‐5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and present a single item that best reflects each criterion, translated into the 10 main languages of countries in which research on this condition has been conducted.

Conclusions

Using results from this cross‐cultural collaboration, we outline important research directions for understanding and assessing internet gaming disorder. As this field moves forward, it is critical that researchers and clinicians around the world begin to apply a common methodology; this report is the first to achieve an international consensus related to the assessment of internet gaming disorder.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a primary method for classifying psychiatric disorders. The fifth revision, DSM‐5 , includes non‐substance addictions for the first time. This paper addresses two contentious issues related to this change: (i) the inclusion of behavioral addictions generally, and internet gaming disorder specifically, in the DSM‐5; and (ii) the intended meaning behind the DSM‐5 internet gaming disorder criteria.

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Internet and Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Literature Review of Neuroimaging Studies
Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. Brain sciences 2.3 (2012): 347-374.
In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioralRead More...

In the past decade, research has accumulated suggesting that excessive Internet use can lead to the development of a behavioral addiction. Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. The aim of this review is to identify all empirical studies to date that used neuroimaging techniques to shed light upon the emerging mental health problem of Internet and gaming addiction from a neuroscientific perspective. Neuroimaging studies offer an advantage over traditional survey and behavioral research because with this method, it is possible to distinguish particular brain areas that are involved in the development and maintenance of addiction. A systematic literature search was conducted, identifying 18 studies. These studies provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet and gaming addiction, on a variety of levels. On the molecular level, Internet addiction is characterized by an overall reward deficiency that entails decreased dopaminergic activity. On the level of neural circuitry, Internet and gaming addiction led to neuroadaptation and structural changes that occur as a consequence of prolonged increased activity in brain areas associated with addiction. On a behavioral level, Internet and gaming addicts appear to be constricted with regards to their cognitive functioning in various domains. The paper shows that understanding the neuronal correlates associated with the development of Internet and gaming addiction will promote future research and will pave the way for the development of addiction treatment approaches.

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Brain correlates of craving for online gaming under cue exposure in subjects with Internet gaming addiction and in remitted subjects
Ko, C. H., Liu, G. C., Yen, J. Y., Chen, C. Y., Yen, C. F., & Chen, C. S. Addiction biology 18.3 (2013): 559-569.
This study aimed to evaluate brain correlates of cue‐induced craving to play online games in subjects with Internet gaming addictionRead More...

This study aimed to evaluate brain correlates of cue‐induced craving to play online games in subjects with Internet gaming addiction (IGA), subjects in remission from IGA and controls. The craving response was assessed by event‐related design of functional magnetic resonance images (fMRIs). Fifteen subjects with IGA, 15 in remission from IGA and 15 controls were recruited in this study. The subjects were arranged to view the gaming screenshots and neutral images under investigation of fMRIs. The results showed that bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), precuneus, left parahippocampus, posterior cingulate and right anterior cingulate were activated in response to gaming cues in the IGA group and their activation was stronger in the IGA group than those in the control group. Their region‐of‐interest was also positively correlated with subjective gaming urge under cue exposure. These activated brain areas represent the brain circuit corresponding to the mechanism of substance use disorder. Thus, it would suggest that the mechanism of IGA is similar to substance use disorder. Furthermore, the IGA group had stronger activation over right DLPFC and left parahippocampus than did the remission group. The two areas would be candidate markers for current addiction to online gaming and should be investigated in future studies.

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Internet Gaming Addiction, Problematic Use of the Internet, and sleep problems: A systematic review
Lam, L. T. Current psychiatry reports 16.4 (2014): 444.
The effect of problematic use of the Internet on mental health, particularly depression among young people, has been established butRead More...

The effect of problematic use of the Internet on mental health, particularly depression among young people, has been established but without a probable model for the underlying mechanism. In this study, a model is presented to describe possible pathways for the linkage between Internet gaming addiction and depression possibly mediated by sleep problems. A systematic review was conducted to gather epidemiological evidence to support or refute the link between addictive Internet gaming, problematic Internet use, and sleep problems including insomnia and poor sleep quality. Seven studies were identified through a systematic literature search, of these three related to addictive Internet gaming and four on problematic Internet uses and sleep problems. Information was extracted and analysed systematically from each of the studies and tabulated as a summary. Results of the review suggest that additive gaming, particularly massively multiplayer online role-playing games MMORPG, might be associated with poorer quality of sleep. Results further indicated that problematic Internet use was associated with sleep problems including subjective insomnia and poor sleep quality.

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Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives
Kuss, D. J. Psychology research and behavior management 6 (2013): 125.
In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessiveRead More...

In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that evidences neurobiologic correlates of Internet gaming addiction and the establishment of a preliminary diagnosis, but also emphasizes the necessity of an indepth understanding of the meaning, context, and practices associated with gaming.

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Prevention of Internet addiction: A systematic review
Vondráčková, P., & Gabrhelik, R. Journal of behavioral addictions 5.4 (2016): 568-579.
Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published onRead More...
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Internet Gaming Addiction: A Systematic Review of Empirical Research
Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 10.2 (2012): 278-296.
The activity of play has been ever present in human history and the Internet has emerged as a playground increasinglyRead More...

The activity of play has been ever present in human history and the Internet has emerged as a playground increasingly populated by gamers. Research suggests that a minority of Internet game players experience symptoms traditionally associated with substance-related addictions, including mood modification, tolerance and salience. Because the current scientific knowledge of Internet gaming addiction is copious in scope and appears relatively complex, this literature review attempts to reduce this confusion by providing an innovative framework by which all the studies to date can be categorized. A total of 58 empirical studies were included in this literature review. Using the current empirical knowledge, it is argued that Internet gaming addiction follows a continuum, with antecedents in etiology and risk factors, through to the development of a “full-blown” addiction, followed by ramifications in terms of negative consequences and potential treatment. The results are evaluated in light of the emergent discrepancies in findings, and the consequent implications for future research.

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Internet Addiction or Excessive Internet Use
Weinstein, A., & Lejoyeux, M. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse 36.5 (2010): 277-283.
Background: Problematic Internet addiction or excessive Internet use is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regardingRead More...

Background: Problematic Internet addiction or excessive Internet use is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding computer use and Internet access that lead to impairment or distress. Currently, there is no recognition of internet addiction within the spectrum of addictive disorders and, therefore, no corresponding diagnosis. It has, however, been proposed for inclusion in the next version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder(DSM). Objective: To review the literature on Internet addiction over the topics of diagnosis, phenomenology, epidemiology, and treatment. Methods: Review of published literature between 2000–2009 in Medline and PubMed using the term “internet addiction. Results: Surveys in the United States and Europe have indicated prevalence rate between 1.5% and 8.2%, although the diagnostic criteria and assessment questionnaires used for diagnosis vary between countries. Cross-sectional studies on samples of patients report high comorbidity of Internet addiction with psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders (including depression), anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Several factors are predictive of problematic Internet use, including personality traits, parenting and familial factors, alcohol use, and social anxiety. Conclusions and Scientific Significance: Although Internet-addicted individuals have difficulty suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for Internet addiction. Due to the lack of methodologically adequate research, it is currently impossible to recommend any evidence-based treatment of Internet addiction.

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The association between adolescent well-being and digital technology use
Orben, A., & Przybylski, A. K. Nature Human Behaviour (2019): 1.
The widespread use of digital technologies by young people has spurred speculation that their regular use negatively impacts psychological well-being.Read More...

The widespread use of digital technologies by young people has spurred speculation that their regular use negatively impacts psychological well-being. Current empirical evidence supporting this idea is largely based on secondary analyses of large-scale social datasets. Though these datasets provide a valuable resource for highly powered investigations, their many variables and observations are often explored with an analytical flexibility that marks small effects as statistically significant, thereby leading to potential false positives and conflicting results. Here we address these methodological challenges by applying specification curve analysis (SCA) across three large-scale social datasets (total n = 355,358) to rigorously examine correlational evidence for the effects of digital technology on adolescents. The association we find between digital technology use and adolescent well-being is negative but small, explaining at most 0.4% of the variation in well-being. Taking the broader context of the data into account suggests that these effects are too small to warrant policy change.

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Problematic Internet Use Among US Youth – A Systematic Review
Moreno, M. A., Jelenchick, L., Cox, E., Young, H., & Christakis, D. A. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine 165.9 (2011): 797-805.
Objective To investigate study quality and reported prevalence among the emergent area of problematic Internet use (PIU) research conducted in populationsRead More...

Objective To investigate study quality and reported prevalence among the emergent area of problematic Internet use (PIU) research conducted in populations of US adolescents and college students.

Data Sources We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Knowledge from inception to July 2010.

Study Selection Using a keyword search, we evaluated English-language PIU studies with populations of US adolescents and college students.

Main Outcome Measures Using a quality review tool based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, 2 reviewers independently extracted data items including study setting, subject population, instrument used, and reported prevalence.

Results Search results yielded 658 articles. We identified 18 research studies that met inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of studies ranged between 14 and 29 total points of a possible 42 points; the average score was 23 (SD 5.1). Among these 18 studies, 8 reported prevalence estimates of US college student PIU; prevalence rates ranged from 0% to 26.3%. An additional 10 studies did not report prevalence.

Conclusions The evaluation of PIU remains incomplete and is hampered by methodological inconsistencies. The wide range of conceptual approaches may have impacted the reported prevalence rates. Despite the newness of this area of study, most studies in our review were published more than 3 years ago. Opportunities exist to pursue future studies adhering to recognized quality guidelines, as well as applying consistency in theoretical approach and validated instruments.

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